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P

p.o.

p.o. refers to drug administration via the oral route, i.e. by mouth.

pA2

pA2 is a measure of the potency of an antagonist. It is the negative logarithm of the molar concentration of an antagonist that would produce a 2-fold shift in the concentration response curve for an agonist.

paracrine

Pertaining to the release of hormones (or other signalling molecules) which diffuse over a relatively short distance to act on nearby cells to affect changes in their function, growth or behavior. Fibroblast growth factors, hedgehog proteins, Wnt proteins and TGF-β peptides are paracrine factors.

parenteral administration

Parenteral administration routes do not involve the gastrointestinal tract and include intravenous, subcutaneous, intracerebral, intrathecal and intramuscular injection or infusion. Parenteral administration facilitates systemic exposure to the drug. In emergency situations and intensive care medicine parenteral administration is the most rapid and reliable method of drug delivery.

pD2

pD2 is the negative logarithm of an EC50 or IC50 value.

phenotype

The observable physical traits or biochemical characteristics of an organism based on a combination of the organism’s genes and environmental factors.

pIC50

pIC50 is the negative logarithm of the IC50 value.

pKB

pKB is the negative logarithm of the KB value.

pKd

pKd is the negative logarithm of the Kd value.

pKi

pKi is the negative logarithm of the Ki value.

potency

Potency is a measure of the concentration of a drug at which it is effective.

primary prevention

Primary prevention aims to prevent disease before it occurs. Examples include immunization against infectious diseases, and the use of statins to prevent cardiovascular disease.

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