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Nociception (nocioception or nociperception) is the sensing of noxious stimuli of chemical, mechanical or thermal origin. These stimuli activate nociceptors, which transmit the signal through the spinal cord to the somatosensory cortex of the brain, where it is decoded as pain. The sensation of pain triggers a biological or behavioural response aimed to remove or counteract the noxious stimulus.

non-coding RNA

Abbreviated to ncRNA: RNA molecules which are not transcribed and whose function is to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Epigenetic related ncRNAs include miRNA (micro RNA), siRNA (small interfering RNA), piRNA (piwi RNA) and lncRNA (long non-coding RNA)

non-specific binding

Non-specific binding refers to the proportion of radioligand that is not displaced by other competitive ligands specific for the receptor in a radio-ligand binding assay. It can be caused by radioligand binding to other receptors or proteins, partitioning into lipids or binding to other things, including experimental plastic- or glassware.


Nootropics are drugs, dietary supplements, or other substances that are used by healthy individuals to improve cognitive function. Nootropics are also known as smart drugs or cognitive enhancers. Widely used nootropics include stimulants such as caffeine, and the ADHD drug methylphenidate (a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor).


This term broadly covers any disease contracted by a patient while under medical care, but has come to be used synonymously with 'hospital-acquired' when referring to infections such as Clostridium difficile, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


A defined DNA-histone complex, consisting of 146 base pairs of double-stranded DNA wrapped around eight histone proteins.

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