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s.c. refers to drug administration via the subcutaneous route.

secondary prevention

Secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of an existing disease, by detecting and treating the it as soon as possible with the aim of halting or at least slowing its progress. Examples of secondary preventions include the use of regular screening programs to detect disease at its earliest stage (e.g. breast and bowel cancer screening) and taking low-dose aspirin alongside dietary changes and exercise to prevent further heart attacks or strokes.

silent antagonist

A silent (or neutral) antagonist is a compound that attenuates the effects of agonists or inverse agonists, producing a functional reduction in signal transduction. Affects only ligand-dependent receptor activation and displays no intrinsic activity itself.

specific binding

Specific binding refers to the proportion of radioligand that can be displaced by competitive ligands specific for the receptor, i.e. that is directly attributable to binding to the test target.


Statin drugs (e.g. simvastatin, atorvastatin), more correctly known as HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, block the rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis in the liver. This, in turn, stimulates the expression of increased numbers of LDL receptors on hepatocytes to increase the uptake of cholesterol-rich LDL lipoprotein particles from the circulation. Statins are indicated for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.


Describes the post-translational conjugation of SUMOs (small ubiquitin-like modifiers) to proteins. SUMOylation is involved in various cellular processes, including nuclear-cytosolic transport, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, protein stability, response to stress, and progression through the cell cycle.


Systemic refers to agents that act in the peripheral tissues of the body, not in the central nervous system.

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